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Example of splice enhancer targeting

Liquori A, Vaché C, Baux D, Blanchet C, Hamel C, Malcolm S, Koenig M, Claustres M, Roux AF. Whole USH2A Gene Sequencing Identifies Several New Deep Intronic Mutations. Hum Mutat. 2015 Nov 2. doi: 10.1002/humu.22926. [Epub ahead of print]

Thursday, December 3, 2015 - 09:40
Bathing zebrafish embryos with Vivo-Morpholinos

Wong TT, Zohar Y. Production of reproductively sterile fish by a non-transgenic gene silencing technology. Sci Rep. 2015 Oct 29;5:15822. doi: 10.1038/srep15822.

This group bathed zebrafish embryos (with chorion intact) in Vivo-Morpholino solutions, with oligos targeting dead-end (dnd).

Monday, November 2, 2015 - 10:09
Genetic compensation induced by deleterious mutations but not gene knockdowns

When assessing gene function, gene knockdown reveals what can be hidden by compensation in mutants

Rossi A, Kontarakis Z, Gerri C, Nolte H, Hölper S, Krüger M, Stainier DYR. Genetic compensation induced by deleterious mutations but not gene knockdowns. Nature. 2015;[Epub ahead of print] doi:10.1038/nature14580

Monday, July 13, 2015 - 11:15
Morpholinos to validate target specificity of antibodies

Here's an example of using Morpholinos to validate target specificity of antibodies.

Belgacem YH, Borodinsky LN. Inversion of Sonic hedgehog action on its canonical pathway by electrical activity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015 Mar 31;112(13):4140-5. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1419690112. Epub 2015 Mar 17.

Friday, June 12, 2015 - 10:54
Websites (and some papers) about morphant and mutant comparisons

I've been watching several websites with discussions of morphant and mutant comparisons. Here are links to the sites. The comments sections have been very supportive of Morpholino technology. I'll update this page as I find more.

Thursday, March 5, 2015 - 13:23
Morpholinos, mutants, and phenocopying

I was concerned when Stefan Schulte-Merker and Didier Stainier' paper appeared in mid-2014, first in Development and then on The Node. Later in 2014 Nathan Lawson's paper in Developmental Cell was published. Prior to these papers I was intrigued and excited by CRISPR technology but felt that, while it might temporarily displace some use of Morpholinos, in the long run it would benefit Morpholino use by making the zebrafish model stronger.

Wednesday, February 11, 2015 - 15:18
Change in Morpholino activity over time

Here are some notes discussing how Morpholino oligos can change activity over time, along with strategies for recovering and maintaining activity.

Change over time in Morpholino activity

Monday, January 5, 2015 - 10:59
Xenopus laevis: brain ventricle injection then electroporation

Faulkner RL, Wishard TJ, Thompson CK, Liu H-H, Cline HT. FMRP regulates neurogenesis in vivo in Xenopus laevis tadpoles. eNeuro. 2014;[Epub ahead of print] doi:10.1523/ENEURO.0055-14.2014

Friday, January 2, 2015 - 12:15
How much Morpholino to inject into a zebrafish egg or early zygote?

An injection volume of 500 pL is reasonable (Rosen et al. 2009, The basic rule for dosing of Morpholino injections is to use the least dose that gives you the phenotype of interest. As the dose increases, so does the potential for off-target RNA interactions and, with that, the potential of seeing a phenotype that has nothing to do with your target RNA.

Wednesday, December 31, 2014 - 08:21
Intestinal delivery to zebrafish from fish water

Progatzky F, Sangha NJ, Yoshida N, McBrien M, Cheung J, Shia A, Scott J, Marchesi JR, Lamb JR, Bugeon L, Dallman MJ. Dietary cholesterol directly induces acute inflammasome-dependent intestinal inflammation. Nat Commun. 2014 Dec 23;5:5864. doi: 10.1038/ncomms6864.

This paper claims delivery of Morpholino to the intestinal epithelium of zebrafish by putting Morpholinos in the fish water around feeding time.

Friday, December 26, 2014 - 13:17