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Endo-Porter

Endo-Porter simple delivery reagent
Citations of papers using Endo-Porter are here.
  1. What is it and how does it work?
  2. Endo-Porter is a novel peptide* explicitly designed to do what all existing peptides and lipid-based delivery reagents can not: deliver substances into the cytosol of cells by an endocytosis-mediated process that avoids damaging the plasma membrane of the cell. This mechanism prevents the loss of vital cell contents with its associated toxicity. Endo-Porter requires no interaction with the cargo to be delivered and allows the cargo that is endocytosed along with Endo-Porter to exit the endosome and enter the cytosol. Detailed studies with a FITC-anti-actin antibody fragment (Sigma F-3046) and fluorescent high-molecular weight dextrans suggest Endo-Porter can deliver high concentrations of cargo exceeding 70kD into both adherent and non-adherent cells. Unlike the many delivery reagents that claim effectiveness in the presence of serum, Endo-Porter actually works with serum concentrations up to the 10% standard. Endo-Porter is excellent at delivering peptides, proteins, and Morpholino antisense oligos as well! We do not recommend using Endo-Porter for delivery of large (>100 Kd) proteins, as efficacy is poor.


    Endo-Porter has been reported effective for delivering siRNA in HeLa, Huh-7 and Hek293T cultures [Bartz et al. 2011]. Combined with poly-lysine, Endo-Porter delivered siRNA efficiently in rat hepatoma H4IIEC3 cells [Inoue et al. 2008].Endo-Porter has been reported to deliver siRNA in vivo when encapsulated in glucan shells [Tesz et al. 2011, Aouadi et al. 2009]. Our tests have not found Endo-Porter effective for delivery of plasmid DNA.

    * Patented: US 7,084,248 B2

    Figure: Endo-Porter delivery mechanism and image of Endo-Porter delivery of 70 kD dextran tagged with Texas Red
    View or download an animation of Endo-Porter's mechanism of action by selecting one of the following two choices:

    Windows Media Apple QuickTime

    Animation by Pathworks of Corvallis, OR.
  3. What are the advantages of Endo-Porter over other delivery reagents?
  4. Most other delivery reagents require pre-incubation or optimized reagent-to-cargo ratio in order to achieve delivery, but not Endo-Porter. You can add as much or as little cargo as desired and use the same amount of Endo-Porter EVERY time. Endo-Porter lasts indefinitely and can be stored at room temperature or below.


  5. Endo-Porter excels in independent comparison of nine cytosolic delivery reagents

  6. When delivering Atto488-bovine serum albumin into cultured human sarcoma cells using nine different commercial delivery products, only Endo-Porter achieved clear cytosolic delivery.

    "A primarily endosomal uptake of proteins is consistent with the observation that cytoplasmic signals could only be observed in Endo-Porter treated cells. The Endo-Porter reagent is a specialized reagent to disrupt endosomal membranes as a consequence of endosomal acidification and it is the only one of the reagents tested which has exclusively been invented to overcome endosomal entrapment."[1]

    Endo-Porter also delivered to the largest fraction of cells: "Comparing the different transduction reagents, the percentage of fluorescence positive cells varied between 89.2 (TurboFect) and 96.8% (Endo-Porter)."[1]

    [1] Mellert K, Lamla M, Scheffzek K, Wittig R, Kaufmann D. Enhancing endosomal escape of transduced proteins by photochemical internalisation. PLoS One. 2012;7(12):e52473. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0052473. Epub 2012 Dec 21.
  7. The protocol is simple: squirt and swirl.
  8. Our recommended delivery procedure:

    1. Replace spent culture medium with fresh medium (preferably 10% serum).
    2. Add the desired cargo and swirl to mix.
    3. Add 6 µL of Endo-Porter for every 1 mL of culture medium & cargo and immediately swirl to mix.

    In most cases, long-term (72 hour) and short-term (24 hour) delivery is optimal at 6 µM Endo-Porter (6 µL/mL); however, cell lines vary in their response to Endo-Porter and it is prudent to start experiments with a new cell line by doing a ranging study for efficacy and toxicity at 2, 4, and 6 µL/mL Endo-Porter. Check the cells at 72 hours for signs of toxicity, then use the highest concentration that the cells tolerate for subsequent delivery procedures. Unlike most delivery solutions, 10% serum concentrations yield better results than reduced serum levels. Additional cargo and Endo-Porter can be added with each media replacement if desired. For delivery of Morpholino oligos, we suggest you start with 10 µM oligo final concentration in the culture medium then adjust concentrations as needed to achieve effective and specific gene knockdown.

    Endo-Porter protocol (PDF)
  9. What do I get and how much does it cost?
  10. For $200 you will receive 1.0 mL of 1.0 mM Endo-Porter in a 100% DMSO solution. This is enough to deliver up to 160 mL of cells with Endo-Porter. Endo-Porter can be ordered online today!

    For additional questions or assistance from our Ph.D.-level customer support staff use our online live help, submit a question, or call (541) 929-7840 ext. 1.


  • Endo-Porter references

  • A description of the development of Endo-Porter has been published:

    Summerton JE. Endo-Porter: A Novel Reagent for Safe, Effective Delivery of Substances into Cells. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2005 Nov;1058:62-75
    cell culture: NIH/3T3



    Fimiani C, Goina E, Su Q, Gao G, Mallamaci A. RNA activation of haploinsufficient Foxg1 gene in murine neocortex. Sci Rep. 2016 Dec 20;6:39311. doi: 10.1038/srep39311.


    Egesipe A-L, Blondel S, Cicero AL, Jaskowiak A-L, Navarro C, De Sandre-Giovannoli A, Levy N, Peschanski M, Nissan X. Metformin decreases progerin expression and alleviates pathological defects of Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome cells. npj Aging and Mechanisms of Disease. 2016;2:16026. doi:10.1038/npjamd.2016.26.
    Delivery into mesenchymal stem cells derived from HGPS iPS cells


    Yuan Y, Wang Y, Liu Q, Zhu F, Hong Y. Singapore grouper iridovirus protein VP088 is essential for viral infectivity. Sci Rep. 2016 Aug 8;6:31170. doi: 10.1038/srep31170.
    cell culture: Oryzias latipes (Medaka) haploid ES cell line HX1


    Wilhelmi I, Kanski R, Neumann A, Herdt O, Hoff F, Jacob R, Preußner M, Heyd F. Sec16 alternative splicing dynamically controls COPII transport efficiency . Nat Commun. 2016 Aug 5;7:12347. doi: 10.1038/ncomms12347.
    cell culture: Hek293 and HeLa and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) enriched for T cells


    Wang M, Wu B, Tucker JD, Bollinger LE, Lu P, Lu Q. Poly(ester amine) Composed of Polyethylenimine and Pluronic Enhance Delivery of Antisense Oligonucleotides In Vitro and in Dystrophic mdx Mice. Mol Ther Nucleic Acids. 2016 Aug 2;5(8):e341. doi: 10.1038/mtna.2016.51.
    cell culture: C2C12E50


    Fraszczak J, Helness A, Chen R, Vadnais C, Robert F, Khandanpour C, Möröy T. Threshold Levels of Gfi1 Maintain E2A Activity for B Cell Commitment via Repression of Id1. PLoS One. 2016;11(7):e0160344. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0160344
    Endo-Porter delivery into cultured LSK cells (B cell progenitors)


    Osman EY, Washington CW 3rd, Kaifer KA, Mazzasette C, Patitucci TN, Florea KM, Simon ME, Ko CP, Ebert AD, Lorson CL. Optimization of Morpholino Antisense Oligonucleotides Targeting the Intronic Repressor Element1 in Spinal Muscular Atrophy. Mol Ther. 2016 Jul 12. doi: 10.1038/mt.2016.145. [Epub ahead of print]
    Endo-Porter delivery into iPS-derived SMA motor neurons


    Harhouri K, Navarro C, Baquerre C, Da Silva N, Bartoli C, Casey F, Mawuse GK, Doubaj Y, Lévy N, De Sandre-Giovannoli A. Antisense-Based Progerin Downregulation in HGPS-Like Patients’ Cells. Cells, 2016;5(3):31. doi:10.3390/cells5030031


    Sato Y, Sato S, Kikuchi T, Nonaka A, Kumagaia Y, Sasaki A, Kobayashi M. Knockdown of gene expression by antisense morpholino oligos in preimplantation mouse embryos cultured in vitro. Anal Biochem. 2016;[Epub ahead of print] doi:10.1016/j.ab.2016.06.032


    Parfitt DA, Lane A, Ramsden CM, Carr A-JF, Munro PM, Jovanovic K, Schwarz N, Kanuga N, Muthiah MN, Hull S, Gallo J-M, da Cruz L, Moore AT, Hardcastle AJ, Coffey PJ, Cheetham ME. Identification and Correction of Mechanisms Underlying Inherited Blindness in Human iPSC-Derived Optic Cups. Cell Stem Cell. 2016;[Epub ahead of print] doi:10.1016/j.stem.2016.03.021
    human fibroblast-derived iPSC


    Vad-Nielsen J, Jakobsen KR, Daugaard TF, Thomsen R, Brügmann A, Sørensen BS, Nielsen AL. Regulatory dissection of the CBX5 and hnRNPA1 bi-directional promoter in human breast cancer cells reveals novel transcript variants differentially associated with HP1α down-regulation in metastatic cells. BMC Cancer. 2016;16:32. doi:10.1186/s12885-016-2059-x
    cell culture: MDA-MB-231 cells


    Brooks K, Burns G, Spencer TE. Biological Roles of Hydroxysteroid (11-Beta) Dehydrogenase 1 (HSD11B1), HSD11B2, and Glucocorticoid Receptor (NR3C1) in Sheep Conceptus Elongation. Biol Reprod. 2015 Jun 17. pii: biolreprod.115.130757. [Epub ahead of print]
    Delivery in uterus to endometrium of sheep


    Gao M, Yan H, Yin RH, Wang Q, Zhan YQ, Yu M, Ge CH, Li CY, Wang XH, Ge ZQ, Yang XM. Hepassocin is required for hepatic outgrowth during zebrafish hepatogenesis. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2015 Jun 3. pii: S0006-291X(15)30045-0. doi: 10.1016/j.bbrc.2015.05.121. [Epub ahead of print]
    cell culture: delivery to HEK293T cells


    Curtis AM, Fagundes CT, Yang G, Palsson-McDermott EM, Wochal P, McGettrick AF, Foley NH, Early JO, Chen L, Zhang H, Xue C, Geiger SS, Hokamp K, Reilly MP, Coogan AN, Vigorito E, FitzGerald GA, O'Neill LA. Circadian control of innate immunity in macrophages by miR-155 targeting Bmal1. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015 May 20. pii: 201501327. [Epub ahead of print]
    cell culture: mouse bone marrow derived macrophages BMDM (primary)


    Mino T, Murakawa Y, Fukao A, Vandenbon A, Wessels HH, Ori D, Uehata T, Tartey S, Akira S, Suzuki Y, Vinuesa CG, Ohler U, Standley DM, Landthaler M, Fujiwara T, Takeuchi O. Regnase-1 and Roquin Regulate a Common Element in Inflammatory mRNAs by Spatiotemporally Distinct Mechanisms. Cell. 2015 May 21;161(5):1058-73. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2015.04.029.


    Wang K, Liu CY, Zhou LY, Wang JX, Wang M, Zhao B, Zhao WK, Xu SJ, Fan LH, Zhang XJ, Feng C, Wang CQ, Zhao YF, Li PF. APF lncRNA regulates autophagy and myocardial infarction by targeting miR-188-3p. Nat Commun. 2015 Apr 10;6:6779. doi: 10.1038/ncomms7779.
    cell culture: mouse primary cardiomyocytes


    Echigoya Y, Mouly V, Garcia L, Yokota T, Duddy W. In silico screening based on predictive algorithms as a design tool for exon skipping oligonucleotides in duchenne muscular dystrophy. PLoS One. 2015 Mar 27;10(3):e0120058. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0120058. eCollection 2015.
    cell culture: human myotubes


    Becerra S, Montes M, Hernández-Munain C, Suñé C. Prp40 pre-mRNA processing factor 40 homolog B (PRPF40B) associates with SF1 and U2AF65 and modulates alternative pre-mRNA splicing in vivo. RNA. 2015 Mar;21(3):438-57. doi: 10.1261/rna.047258.114. Epub 2015 Jan 20.
    cell culture: HEK293T cells


    Yoshida M, Kitaoka S, Egawa N, Yamane M, Ikeda R, Tsukita K, Amano N, Watanabe A, Morimoto M, Takahashi J, Hosoi H, Nakahata T, Inoue H, Saito MK. Modeling the Early Phenotype at the Neuromuscular Junction of Spinal Muscular Atrophy Using Patient-Derived iPSCs. Stem Cell Rep. 2015;[Epub ahead of print]. 10.1016/j.stemcr.2015.02.010
    cell culture: human iPSC co-culture with C2C12, delivery by Endo-Porter


    Valiunas V, Wang HZ, Li L, Gordon C, Valiuniene L, Cohen IS, Brink PR. A comparison of two cellular delivery mechanisms for small interfering RNA. Physiol Rep. 2015 Feb 3;3(2). pii: e12286. doi: 10.14814/phy2.12286. Print 2015 Feb 1.


    Brooks KE, Burns GW, Spencer TE. Peroxisome Proliferator Activator Receptor Gamma (PPARG) Regulates Conceptus Elongation in Sheep. Biol Reprod. 2014 Dec 17. pii: biolreprod.114.123877. [Epub ahead of print]
    Endo-Porter (EP) in culture, intrauterine infusion with EP


    Brooks K, Spencer TE. Biological Roles of Interferon Tau (IFNT) and Type I IFN Receptors in Elongation of the Ovine Conceptus. Biol Reprod. 2014 Dec 10. pii: biolreprod.114.124156. [Epub ahead of print]
    Endo-Porter (EP) in culture, intrauterine injection with EP, intrauterine infusion with EP


    Naganuma T, Hoshino W, Shikanai Y, Sato R, Liu K, Sato S, Muramoto K, Osada M, Yoshima K, Ogawa T. Novel Matrix Proteins of Pteria penguin Pearl Oyster Shell Nacre Homologous to the Jacalin-Related β-Prism Fold Lectins. PLoS ONE. 2014;9(11):e112326. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0112326
    Endo-Porter delivery of Morpholino from artificial sea water


    Gallego-Villar L, Viecelli HM, Pérez B, Harding CO, Ugarte M, Thöny B, Desviat LR. A sensitive assay system to test antisense oligonucleotides for splice suppression therapy in the mouse liver. Mol Ther Nucleic Acids. 2014 Sep 16;3:e193. doi: 10.1038/mtna.2014.44.


    Wang X, Frank JW, Xu J, Dunlap KA, Satterfield MC, Burghardt RC, Romero JJ, Hansen TR, Wu G, Bazer FW. Functional Role of Arginine During the Peri-Implantation Period of Pregnancy. II. Consequences of Loss of Function of Nitric Oxide Synthase NOS3 mRNA in Ovine Conceptus Trophectoderm. Biol Reprod. 2014 Jul 24. pii: biolreprod.114.121202. [Epub ahead of print]
    Endo-Porter in uterine horns of sheep (Ovis aries)


    Konantz J, Antos CL. Reverse Genetic Morpholino Approach Using Cardiac Ventricular Injection to Transfect Multiple Difficult-to-target Tissues in the Zebrafish Larva. J Vis Exp. 2014;88:e51595 doi:10.3791/51595
    Injections to zebrafish larvae


    Kalogeris TJ, Baines C, Korthuis RJ. Adenosine Prevents TNFα-Induced Decrease in Endothelial Mitochondrial Mass via Activation of eNOS-PGC-1α Regulatory Axis. PLoS ONE. 2014;9(6):e98459. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0098459 Delivery to cultured human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC-1)


    Joshi HP, Subramanian IV, Schnettler EK, Ghosh G, Rupaimoole R, Evans C, Saluja M, Jing Y, Cristina I, Roy S, Zeng Y, Shah VH, Sood AK, Ramakrishnan S. Dynamin 2 along with microRNA-199a reciprocally regulate hypoxia-inducible factors and ovarian cancer metastasis. PNAS. 2014;[Epub ahead of print] doi:10.1073/pnas.1317242111


    Wang X, Ying W, Dunlap KA, Lin G, Satterfield MC, Burghardt RC, Wu G, Bazer FW. Arginine Decarboxylase and Agmatinase: An Alternative Pathway for De Novo Biosynthesis of Polyamines for Development of Mammalian Conceptuses. Biol Reprod. 2014 Mar 19. [Epub ahead of print]
    Endo-Porter in uterine horns of sheep (Ovis aries)


    Wang X, Frank JW, Little DR, Dunlap KA, Satterfield MC, Burghardt RC, Hansen TR, Wu G, Bazer FW. Functional role of arginine during the peri-implantation period of pregnancy. I. Consequences of loss of function of arginine transporter SLC7A1 mRNA in ovine conceptus trophectoderm. FASEB J. 2014;[Epub ahead of print] doi:10.1096/fj.13-248757
    Endo-Porter in sheep conceptus trophectoderm (Ovis aries)


    Wang K, Liu F, Zhou LY, Long B, Yuan SM, Wang Y, Liu CY, Sun T, Zhang XJ, Li PF. A Long Noncoding RNA, CHRF Regulates Cardiac Hypertrophy by Targeting miR-489. Circ Res. 2014 Feb 20. [Epub ahead of print]
    miRNA target-protecting Morpholino delivered to cultured cardiomyocytes with Endo-Porter


    Wang P, Calise J, Powell K, Divald A, Powell SR. Upregulation of proteasome activity rescues cardiomyocytes following pulse treatment with a proteasome inhibitor. Am J Cardiovasc Dis. 2014 Jan 15;4(1):6-13. eCollection 2014.
    Morpholinos delivered to rat neonatal cardiomyocytes in cell culture using Endo-Porter


    Krautbauer S, Eisinger K, Neumeier M, Hader Y, Buettner R, Schmid PM, Aslanidis C, Buechler C. Free Fatty Acids, Lipopolysaccharide and IL-1α Induce Adipocyte Manganese Superoxide Dismutase Which Is Increased in Visceral Adipose Tissues of Obese Rodents. PLoS One. 2014 Jan 24;9(1):e86866. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0086866. eCollection 2014.
    Endo-Porter used to deliver siRNA into predifferentiated 3T3-L1 cells


    Orrego PR, Olivares H, Cordero EM, Bressan A, Cortez M, Sagua H, Neira I, González J, da Silveira JF, Yoshida N, Araya JE. A Cytoplasmic New Catalytic Subunit of Calcineurin in Trypanosoma cruzi and Its Molecular and Functional Characterization. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2014;8(1):e2676. doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0002676
    Morpholino delivery into Trypanosomes by Endo-porter


    Agranat-Tamir L, Shomron N, Sperling J, Sperling R. Interplay between pre-mRNA splicing and microRNA biogenesis within the supraspliceosome. Nucl Acids Res. 2014;[Epub ahead of print] doi:10.1093/nar/gkt1413
    Delivery into HeLa cultures


    Wang K, Liu F, Zhou LY, Ding SL, Long B, Liu CY, Sun T, Fan YY, Sun L, Li PF. miR-874 regulates myocardial necrosis by targeting caspase-8. Cell Death Dis. 2013 Jul 4;4:e709. doi: 10.1038/cddis.2013.233.


    Koebis M, Kiyatake T, Yamaura H, Nagano K, Higashihara M, Sonoo M, Hayashi Y, Negishi Y, Endo-Takahashi Y, Yanagihara D, Matsuda R, Takahashi MP, Nishino I, Ishiura S. Ultrasound-enhanced delivery of Morpholino with Bubble liposomes ameliorates the myotonia of myotonic dystrophy model mice. Sci Rep. 2013 Jul 22;3:2242. doi: 10.1038/srep02242.
    Knockdown in COS-7 cell culture


    Aouadi M, Tencerova M, Vangala P, Yawe JC, Nicoloro SM, Amano SU, Cohen JL, Czech MP. Gene silencing in adipose tissue macrophages regulates whole-body metabolism in obese mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013 May 14;110(20):8278-83. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1300492110. Epub 2013 Apr 29.
    Packaged with siRNA into glucan shells, delivered into mice


    El-Gohary Y, Tulachan S, Guo P, Welsh C, Wiersch J, Prasadan K, Paredes J, Shiota C, Xiao X, Wada Y, Diaz M, Gittes G. Smad signaling pathways regulate pancreatic endocrine development. Dev Biol. 2013 Jun 15;378(2):83-93. doi: 10.1016/j.ydbio.2013.04.003. Epub 2013 Apr 17.
    Knockdown in hanging-drop cultures of mouse pancreata


    Kaur S, Soto-Pantoja DR, Stein EV, Liu C, Elkahloun AG, Pendrak ML, Nicolae A, Singh SP, Nie Z, Levens D, Isenberg JS, Roberts DD. Thrombospondin-1 Signaling through CD47 Inhibits Self-renewal by Regulating c-Myc and Other Stem Cell Transcription Factors. Sci Rep. 2013 Apr 17;3:1673. doi: 10.1038/srep01673.
    Delivering Morpholinos into primary mouse T-cells.


    Zammarchi F, Boutsalis G, Cartegni L. 5′ UTR Control of Native ERG and of Tmprss2:ERG Variants Activity in Prostate Cancer. PLoS ONE. 2013;8(3):e49721. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0049721


    Patel M, Cai Q, Ding D, Salvi R, Hu Z, Hu BH. The miR-183/Taok1 Target Pair Is Implicated in Cochlear Responses to Acoustic Trauma. PLoS ONE. 2013;8(3):e58471. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0058471
    Knockdown in rat cochlear explant cultures


    Mizrahi RA, Schirle NT, Beal PA. Potent and Selective Inhibition of A-to-I RNA Editing with 2’-O-Methyl/Locked Nucleic Acid-containing Antisense Oligoribonucleotides. ACS Chem Biol. 2013;[Epub ahead of print] doi:10.1021/cb300692k
    Morpholinos delivered into HeLa culture


    Pérez B, Gutiérrez-Solana LG, Verdú A, Merinero B, Yuste-Checa P, Ruiz-Sala P, Calvo R, Jalan A, Marín LL, Campos O, Ruiz MA, Miguel MS, Vázquez M, Castro M, Ferrer I, Navarrete R, Desviat LR, Lapunzina P, Ugarte M, Pérez-Cerdá C. Clinical, biochemical, and molecular studies in pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy. Antisense therapy as possible new therapeutic option. Epilepsia. 2013 Jan 25. doi: 10.1111/epi.12083. [Epub ahead of print]


    Mellert K, Lamla M, Scheffzek K, Wittig R, Kaufmann D. Enhancing endosomal escape of transduced proteins by photochemical internalisation. PLoS One. 2012;7(12):e52473. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0052473. Epub 2012 Dec 21.
    Endo-Porter delivered their test protein (Atto488-BSA) to more cells than other delivery enhancers tested: "Comparing the different transduction reagents, the percentage of fluorescence positive cells varied between 89.2 (TurboFect) and 96.8% (Endo-Porter)."


    Augello MA, Burd CJ, Birbe R, McNair C, Ertel A, Magee MS, Frigo DE, Wilder-Romans K, Shilkrut M, Han S, Jernigan DL, Dean JL, Fatatis A, McDonnell DP, Visakorpi T, Feng FY, Knudsen KE. Convergence of oncogenic and hormone receptor pathways promotes metastatic phenotypes. J Clin Invest. 2013 Jan 2;123(1):493-508. doi: 10.1172/JCI64750. Epub 2012 Dec 21.
    Delivery of Morpholinos into the androgen-dependant LNCaP cancer cell line


    Ridnour LA, Dhanapal S, Hoos M, Wilson J, Lee J, Cheng RY, Brueggemann EE, Hines HB, Wilcock DM, Vitek MP, Wink DA, Colton CA. Nitric oxide-mediated regulation of β-amyloid clearance via alterations of MMP-9/TIMP-1. J Neurochem. 2012 Dec;123(5):736-49. doi: 10.1111/jnc.12028. Epub 2012 Oct 25.
    Delivering to cultured BV2 cells


    Shchelkunova A, Ermolinsky B, Boyle M, Mendez I, Lehker M, Martirosyan KS, Kazansky AV. Tuning of Alternative Splicing - Switch From Proto-Oncogene to Tumor Suppressor. Int J Biol Sci. 2013;9(1):45-54. doi:10.7150/ijbs.5194
    Delivery of Morpholinos into PC-3 cultures


    Wang M, Wu B, Lu P, Cloer C, Tucker JD, Lu Q. Polyethylenimine-modified Pluronics (PCMs) Improve Morpholino Oligomer Delivery in Cell Culture and Dystrophic mdx Mice. Mol Ther. 2012 Nov 20. doi: 10.1038/mt.2012.236. [Epub ahead of print]


    Penn AC, Balik A, Greger IH. Steric antisense inhibition of AMPA receptor Q/R editing reveals tight coupling to intronic editing sites and splicing. Nucleic Acids Res. 2012 Nov 20. [Epub ahead of print]


    Kato Y, Kajiwara C, Ishige I, Mizukami S, Yamazaki C, Eikawa S, Kakimi K, Udono H. HSP70 and HSP90 Differentially Regulate Translocation of Extracellular Antigen to the Cytosol for Cross-Presentation. Autoimmune Dis. 2012;2012:745962. doi: 10.1155/2012/745962. Epub 2012 Sep 25.
    Endo-Porter delivers native and fixed OVA to DC2.4 cells.


    van Dijk M, Thulluru HK, Mulders J, Michel OJ, Poutsma A, Windhorst S, Kleiverda G, Sie D, Lachmeijer AMA, Oudejans CBM. HELLP babies link a novel lincRNA to the trophoblast cell cycle. J Clin Invest. 2012;[Epub ahead of print] doi:10.1172/JCI65171
    Endo-Porter delivery to SGHPL-5 cell line.


    Aburto MR, Sánchez-Calderón H, Hurlé JM, Varela-Nieto I, Magariños M. Early otic development depends on autophagy for apoptotic cell clearance and neural differentiation. Cell Death Dis. 2012 Oct 4;3:e394. doi: 10.1038/cddis.2012.132.
    Endo-Porter delivering Morpholinos to chick inner ear explants.


    Holloway RW, Bogachev O, Bharadwaj AG, McCluskey GD, Majdalawieh AF, Zhang L, Ro HS. Stromal adipocyte enhancer-binding protein 1 (AEBP1) promotes mammary epithelial cell hyperplasia via proinflammatory and hedgehog signaling. J Biol Chem. 2012;[Epub ahead of print] doi:10.1074/jbc.M112.404293


    Yew KH, Carpenter C, Duncan RS, Harrison CJ. Human Cytomegalovirus Induces TLR4 Signaling Components in Monocytes Altering TIRAP, TRAM and Downstream Interferon-Beta and TNF-Alpha Expression. PLoS One. 2012;7(9):e44500. Epub 2012 Sep 7.


    Ridnour LA, Barasch KM, Windhausen AN, Dorsey TH, Lizardo MM, Yfantis HG, Lee DH, Switzer CH, Cheng RYS, Heinecke JL, Brueggmann E, Hines HB, Khanna C, Glynn SA, Ambs S, Wink DA. Nitric Oxide Synthase and Breast Cancer: Role of TIMP-1 in NO-mediated Akt Activation. PLoS ONE. 2012;7(9): e44081. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0044081
    Delivery to human breast cancer cultures MDA-MB-231.


    Sung HJ, Ma W, Wang PY, Hynes J, O'Riordan TC, Combs CA, McCoy JP Jr, Bunz F, Kang JG, Hwang PM. Mitochondrial respiration protects against oxygen-associated DNA damage. Nat Commun. 2010 Apr 12;1:5. doi: 10.1038/ncomms1003.
    Delivery of an oxygen probe molecule into cultured cells using Endo-Porter.


    Nazmi A, Mukhopadhyay R, Dutta K, Basu A. STING Mediates Neuronal Innate Immune Response Following Japanese Encephalitis Virus Infection. Sci Rep. 2012;2:347. Epub 2012 Apr 2.
    Delivery by Endo-Porter into cultured mouse neuroblastoma Neuro2a (N2a) cells.


    Fang D, Pan C, Lin H, Lin Y, Zhang G, Wang H, He M, Xie L, Zhang R. A novel basic protein, PfN23, functions as a key macromolecule during nacre formation. J Biol Chem. 2012 Mar 13. [Epub ahead of print]
    Morpholino delivery by Endoporter in seawater to oyster embryos.


    Fiszer A, Olejniczak M, Switonski PM, Wroblewska JP, Wisniewska-Kruk JW, Mykowska A, Krzyzosiak WJ. An evaluation of oligonucleotide-based therapeutic strategies for polyQ diseases. BMC Mol Biol. 2012;13:6 doi:10.1186/1471-2199-13-6


    Coate TM, Raft S, Zhao X, Ryan AK, Crenshaw EB 3rd, Kelley MW. Otic Mesenchyme Cells Regulate Spiral Ganglion Axon Fasciculation through a Pou3f4/EphA4 Signaling Pathway. Neuron. 2012 Jan 12;73(1):49-63.
    Endo-Porter used with neuron and mesenchyme explants.


    Nakamura K, Du L, Tunuguntla R, Fike F, Cavalieri S, Morio T, Mizutani S, Brusco A, Gatti RA. Functional characterization and targeted correction of ATM mutations identified in Japanese patients with ataxia-telangiectasia. Hum Mutat. 2012 Jan;33(1):198-208. doi: 10.1002/humu.21632. Epub 2011 Nov 9.


    Haririan M, Kaviani S, Soleimani M, Ghaemi SR, Delalat B, Atashi A. Morpholino Oligo Antisense efficiently suppresses BCR/ABL and cell proliferation in CML: specific inhibition of BCR-ABL gene expression by Morpholino Oligo Antisense in BCR-ABL(+) cells. Hematology. 2012 Jan;17(1):28-34.


    Nakano S, Ozasa S, Yoshioka K, Fujii I, Mitsui K, Nomura K, Kosuge H, Endo F, Matsukura M, Kimura S. Exon-skipping events in candidates for clinical trials of morpholino. Pediatr Int. 2011:53(4)524–9.


    Osorio FG, Navarro CL, Cadiñanos J, López-Mejía IC, Quirós PM, Bartoli C, Rivera J, Tazi J, Guzmán G, Varela I, Depetris D, de Carlos F, Cobo J, Andrés V, Sandre-Giovannoli AD, Freije JM, Lévy N, López-Otín C. Splicing-Directed Therapy in a New Mouse Model of Human Accelerated Aging. Sci. Transl. Med. 2011;3:106ra107 doi:10.1126/scitranslmed.3002847


    Zammarchi F, de Stanchina E, Bournazou E, Supakorndej T, Martires K, Riedel E, Corben AD, Bromberg JF, Cartegni L. Antitumorigenic potential of STAT3 alternative splicing modulation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011 Oct 17. [Epub ahead of print]


    McGuire PG, Rangasamy S, Maestas J, Das A. Pericyte-derived sphingosine 1-phosphate induces the expression of adhesion proteins and modulates the retinal endothelial cell barrier. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2011 Dec;31(12):e107-15. Epub 2011 Sep 22.


    Chen S, Bellew C, Yao X, Stefkova J, Dipp S, Saifudeen Z, Bachvarov D, El-Dahr SS. Histone Deacetylase (HDAC) Activity Is Critical for Embryonic Kidney Gene Expression, Growth, and Differentiation. J Biol Chem. 2011 Sep 16;286(37):32775-89. Epub 2011 Jul 21.
    Delivery in murine kidney mK4 cell cultures.


    Lefave CV, Squatrito M, Vorlova S, Rocco GL, Brennan CW, Holland EC, Pan YX, Cartegni L. Splicing factor hnRNPH drives an oncogenic splicing switch in gliomas. EMBO J. 2011 Sep 13;30(19):4084-97. doi: 10.1038/emboj.2011.259.


    Jin Q, Gao G, Mulder KM. Requirement of a dynein light chain in transforming growth factor β signaling in zebrafish ovarian follicle cells. Mol Cell Endocrinol. 2011 Sep 5. [Epub ahead of print]
    293T cultures and zebrafish ovarian follicle cell cultures


    Nazmi A, Dutta K, Basu A. RIG-I Mediates Innate Immune Response in Mouse Neurons Following Japanese Encephalitis Virus Infection. PLoS ONE. 2011;6(6): e21761. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0021761
    Vivo-Morpholinos for systemic delivery in BALB/c mice, Endo-Porter with bare Morpholinos for delivery to primary cortical neuron culture.


    Wu B, Benrashid E, Lu P, Cloer C, Zillmer A, Shaban M, Lu QL. Targeted Skipping of Human Dystrophin Exons in Transgenic Mouse Model Systemically for Antisense Drug Development. PLoS ONE. 2011;6(5):e19906. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0019906


    Fernández-Rodríguez J, Castellsagué J, Benito L, Benavente Y, Capellà G, Blanco I, Serra E, Lázaro C. A mild neurofibromatosis type 1 phenotype produced by the combination of the benign nature of a leaky NF1-splice mutation and the presence of a complex mosaicism. Hum Mutat. 2011 Mar 10. doi: 10.1002/humu.21500. [Epub ahead of print]
    Morpholino delivery into fibroblast cultures.


    Rios M, Parada-Bustamante A, Velasquez LA, Croxatto HC, Orihuela PA. Participation of the oviductal s100 calcium binding protein G in the genomic effect of estradiol that accelerates oviductal embryo transport in mated rats. Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology. 2011;9:69 doi:10.1186/1477-7827-9-69
    Delivery in rat oviducts in vivo


    Mutyam V, Puccetti MV, Frisbie J, Goldstein DL, Krane CM. Endo-Porter–mediated delivery of phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligos (PMOs) in erythrocyte suspension cultures from Cope's gray treefrog Hyla chrysoscelis. BioTechniques. 2011 May;50(5)


    Tesz GJ, Aouadi M, Prot M, Nicoloro SM, Boutet E, Amano SU, Goller A, Wang M, Guo CA, Salomon WE, Virbasius JV, Baum RA, O'Connor MJ, Soto E, Ostroff GR, Czech MP. Glucan particles for selective delivery of siRNA to phagocytic cells in mice. Biochem J. 2011 Jun 1;436(2):351-62.


    Koshimizu E, Imamura S, Qi J, Toure J, Valdez DM Jr, Carr CE, Hanai J, Kishi S. Embryonic Senescence and Laminopathies in a Progeroid Zebrafish Model. PLoS ONE. 2011;6(3): e17688. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0017688
    Delivery into zebrafish AB9 fibroblasts


    Huang W, Ghisletti S, Saijo K, Gandhi M, Aouadi M, Tesz GJ, Zhang DX, Yao J, Czech MP, Goode BL, Rosenfeld MG, Glass CK. Coronin 2A mediates actin-dependent de-repression of inflammatory response genes. Nature. 2011 Feb 17;470(7334):414-8. doi: 10.1038/nature09703.
    Delivery of siRNA using Endo-Porter in β1,3-d-glucan particles, ip injection into mice.


    Bartz R, Fan H, Zhang J, Innocent N, Cherrin C, Beck SC, Pei Y, Momose A, Jadhav V, Tellers DM, Meng F, Crocker LS, Sepp-Lorenzino L, Barnett SF. Effective siRNA delivery and target mRNA degradation using an amphipathic peptide to facilitate pH-dependent endosomal escape. Biochem J. 2011;435:475–87. [Epub Jan 25 ahead of print]
    Tested in HeLa, Huh-7 and Hek293T cultures.


    Hwang-Verslues WW, Chang PH, Wei PC, Yang CY, Huang CK, Kuo WH, Shew JY, Chang KJ, Lee EY, Lee WH. miR-495 is upregulated by E12/E47 in breast cancer stem cells, and promotes oncogenesis and hypoxia resistance via downregulation of E-cadherin and REDD1. Oncogene. 2011 Jan 24. [Epub ahead of print]
    Morpholino delivery to HEK293 cultures.


    Ribeiro CMS, Bird S, Raes G, Ghassabeh GH, Schijns VEJC, Pontes MJSL, Savelkoul HFJ, Wiegertjes GF. A Novel Soluble Immune-Type Receptor (SITR) in Teleost Fish: Carp SITR Is Involved in the Nitric Oxide-Mediated Response to a Protozoan Parasite. PLoS ONE. 2011;6(1): e15986. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0015986


    Zhu QS, Rosenblatt K, Huang KL, Lahat G, Brobey R, Bolshakov S, Nguyen T, Ding Z, Belousov R, Bill K, Luo X, Lazar A, Dicker A, Mills GB, Hung MC, Lev D. Vimentin is a novel AKT1 target mediating motility and invasion. Oncogene. 2011 Jan 27;30(4):457-70. Epub 2010 Sep 20.
    Morpholinos delivered into primary human STS cells.


    Guan W, Cheng F, Huang Q, Kleiboeker S, Qiu J. Inclusion of the Central Exon of Parvovirus B19 Precursor mRNA is Determined by Multiple Splicing Enhancers both in the Exon and the Downstream Intron. J Virol. 2010 Dec 15. [Epub ahead of print]


    Gong Q, Stump MR, Zhou Z. Inhibition of nonsense-mediated mRNA decay by antisense morpholino oligonucleotides restores functional expression of hERG nonsense and frameshift mutations in long QT syndrome. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2010 Oct 27. [Epub ahead of print]


    Ghosh G, Subramanian IV, Adhikari N, Zhang X, Joshi HP, Basi D, Chandrashekhar YS, Hall JL, Roy S, Zeng Y, Ramakrishnan S. Hypoxia-induced microRNA-424 expression in human endothelial cells regulates HIF-α isoforms and promotes angiogenesis. J Clin Invest. 2010 Oct 25. pii: 42980. doi: 10.1172/JCI42980. [Epub ahead of print]
    Morpholino delivery into HUVEC cultures


    Li YH, Chen MH, Gong HY, Hu SY, Li YW, Lin GH, Lin CC, Liu W, Wu JL. Progranulin A-mediated MET signaling is essential for liver morphogenesis in zebrafish. J Biol Chem. 2010 Oct 20. [Epub ahead of print]
    Morpholino delivery into ZFL cultures (zebafish liver culture)


    Zhang J, Harrison JS, Studzinski GP. Isoforms of p38MAPK gamma and delta contribute to differentiation of human AML cells induced by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D₃. Exp Cell Res. 2011 Jan 1;317(1):117-30. Epub 2010 Sep 8.
    Endo-Porter delivering phosphorothioated antisense chimeras.


    Zhdanov AV, Dmitriev RI, Papkovsky DB. Bafilomycin A1 activates respiration of neuronal cells via uncoupling associated with flickering depolarization of mitochondria. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2011 March; 68(5): 903–917. Published online 2010 September 6. doi: 10.1007/s00018-010-0502-8.


    de Campos-Nebel M, Larripa I, González-Cid M. Topoisomerase II-Mediated DNA Damage Is Differently Repaired during the Cell Cycle by Non-Homologous End Joining and Homologous Recombination. PLoS One. 2010 Sep 2;5(9). pii: e12541.


    Saito T, Nakamura A, Aoki Y, Yokota T, Okada T, Osawa M, Takeda S. Antisense PMO Found in Dystrophic Dog Model Was Effective in Cells from Exon 7-Deleted DMD Patient. PLoS ONE. 2010 Aug;5(8):e12239. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0012239


    Ghigna C, De Toledo M, Bonomi S, Valacca C, Gallo S, Apicella M, Eperon I, Tazi J, Biamonti G. Pro-metastatic splicing of Ron proto-oncogene mRNA can be reversed: therapeutic potential of bifunctional oligonucleotides and indole derivatives. RNA Biol. 2010 Jul-Aug;7(4):495-503. Epub 2010 Jul 1.


    Song R, Van Buren T, Yosypiv IV. Histone deacetylases are critical regulators of the renin-angiotensin system during ureteric bud branching morphogenesis. Pediatr Res. 2010 Jun;67(6):573-8.
    mouse MK4 embryonic metanephric mesenchyme cell line


    Long J, Wang Y, Wang W, Chang BH, Danesh FR. Identification of MicroRNA-93 as a novel regulator of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) In hyperglycemic conditions. J Biol Chem. 2010 May 25. [Epub ahead of print]
    Abstract mentions peptide-conjugated Morpholino oligomers, but mat'l and methods describes Endo-Porter.


    Martinon F, Chen X, Lee AH, Glimcher LH. TLR activation of the transcription factor XBP1 regulates innate immune responses in macrophages. Nat Immunol. 2010 May;11(5):411-8. Epub 2010 Mar 28.
    Endo-Porter used to deliver an active recombinant IRE1α protein fragment into J774 macrophages.


    Lahat G, Zhu QS, Huang KL, Wang S, Bolshakov S, Liu J, Torres K, Langley RR, Lazar AJ, Hung MC, Lev D. Vimentin is a novel anti-cancer therapeutic target; insights from in vitro and in vivo mice xenograft studies. PLoS One. 2010 Apr 16;5(4):e10105.


    Matluk N, Rochiera JA, Karaczyn A, Adams TL, Verdi JM. A role for NRAGE in NF-kappaB activation through the non-canonical BMP pathway. BMC Biol. 2010 Jan 25;8(1):7. [Epub ahead of print]


    Pillai VC, Yesudas R, Shaik IH, Thekkumkara TJ, Bickel U, Srivenugopal KS, Mehvar R. Delivery of NADPH-Cytochrome P450 Reductase Antisense Oligos Using Avidin-Biotin Approach. Bioconjug Chem. 2010 Jan 11. [Epub ahead of print]


    Ikeuchi N, Futami J, Hosoi A, Noji S, Kurachi M, Ueha S, Fujii SI, Yamada H, Matsushima K, Moriyasu F, Kakimi K. Efficient cross-presentation of soluble exogenous antigens introduced into dendritic cells using a weak-based amphiphilic peptide. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2010 Jan 11. [Epub ahead of print]


    Fercher A, Ponomarev GV, Yashunski D, Papkovsky D. Evaluation of the derivates of phosphorescent Pt-coproporphyrin as intracellular oxygen-sensitive probes. Anal Bioanal Chem. 2010 Jan 10. [Epub ahead of print]


    Spigoni G, Gedressi C, Mallamaci A. Regulation of Emx2 expression by antisense transcripts in murine cortico-cerebral precursors. PLoS One. 2010 Jan 11;5(1):e8658.
    Morpholinos were delivered to NIH/3T3 cells.


    Figeac F, Uzan B, Faro M, Chelali N, Portha B, Movassat J. Neonatal growth and regeneration of {beta} cells are regulated by the Wnt/{beta}-catenin signaling in normal and diabetic rats. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2009 Nov 17. [Epub ahead of print]


    Yew KH, Carsten B, Harrison C. Scavenger receptor A1 is required for sensing HCMV by endosomal TLR-3/-9 in monocytic THP-1 cells. Mol Immunol. 2009 Nov 13. [Epub ahead of print]


    Nossa CW, Jain P, Tamilselvam B, Gupta VR, Chen LF, Schreiber V, Desnoyers S, Blanke SR. Activation of the abundant nuclear factor poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 by Helicobacter pylori. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009 Nov 24;106(47):19998-20003. Epub 2009 Nov 6.


    Chen AY, Zhang EY, Guan W, Cheng F, Kleiboeker S, Yankee TM, Qiu J. The small 11kDa non-structural protein of human parvovirus B19 plays a key role in inducing apoptosis during B19 virus infection of primary erythroid progenitor cells. Blood. 2009 Oct 27. [Epub ahead of print]


    Shieh JJ, Liu KT, Huang SW, Chen YJ, Hsieh TY. Modification of Alternative Splicing of Mcl-1 Pre-mRNA Using Antisense Morpholino Oligonucleotides Induces Apoptosis in Basal Cell Carcinoma Cells. J Invest Dermatol. 2009 Oct;129(10):2497-506. doi: 10.1038/jid.2009.83. Epub 2009 Apr 16.


    Maxhimer JB, Soto-Pantoja DR, Ridnour LA, Shih HB, DeGraff WG, Tsokos M, Wink DA, Isenberg JS, Roberts DD. Radioprotection in Normal Tissue and Delayed Tumor Growth by Blockade of CD47 Signaling. Sci Transl Med. 2009;1(3):3ra7


    Pérez B, Rincón A, Jorge-Finnigan A, Richard E, Merinero B, Ugarte M, Desviat LR. Pseudoexon exclusion by antisense therapy in methylmalonic aciduria (MMAuria). Hum Mutat. 2009 Sep 2. [Epub ahead of print]


    Okamoto M, Van Stry M, Chung L, Koyanagi M, Sun X, Suzuki Y, Ohara O, Kitamura H, Hijikata A, Kubo M, Bix M. Mina, an Il4 repressor, controls T helper type 2 bias. Nat Immunol. 2009 Aug;10(8):872-9. Epub 2009 Jun 28.
    Primary C57BL/6 CD4+ T cells


    Rodríguez-Pascau L, Coll MJ, Vilageliu L, Grinberg D. Antisense oligonucleotide treatment for a pseudoexon-generating mutation in the NPC1 gene causing Niemann-Pick type C disease. Hum Mutat. 2009 Aug 30. [Epub ahead of print]


    Jenny MJ, Karchner S, Franks D, Woodin BW, Stegeman JJ, Hahn ME. Distinct roles of two zebrafish AHR repressors (AHRRa and AHRRb) in embryonic development and regulating the response to TCDD (2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin). Toxicol Sci. 2009 Jun 3. [Epub ahead of print]
    Delivery into zebrafish cell line ZF-L.


    Lin Z, Murtaza I, Wang K, Jiao J, Gao J, Li PF. miR-23a functions downstream of NFATc3 to regulate cardiac hypertrophy. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009 Jul 2. [Epub ahead of print]


    Liu B, Paranjpe S, Bowen WC, Bell AW, Luo JH, Yu YP, Mars WM, Michalopoulos GK. Investigation of the Role of Glypican 3 in Liver Regeneration and Hepatocyte Proliferation. Am J Pathol. 2009 Jul 2. [Epub ahead of print]


    Qi YT, Zhao Y, Zhang Z, Li D, Gu JY, Fu XN, Chen XN, Yuan CG, Lai LH. A study of mir-34a effect on expression and function in nerves. Journal of Molecular Cell Biology. 2009;(42)3-4:217-223 (Chinese)


    Nikopoulos GN, Martins JF, Adams TL, Karaczyn A, Adams D, Vary C, Verdi JM. NRAGE: A Potential Rheostat During Branching Morphogenesis. Mech Dev. 2009 May-Jun;126(5-6):337-49. Epub 2009 Mar 4.


    Kamel S, Kruger C, Salbaum JM, Kappen C. Morpholino-mediated knockdown in primary chondrocytes implicates Hoxc8 in regulation of cell cycle progression. Bone. 2009 Apr;44(4):708-16. doi: 10.1016/j.bone.2008.10.057. Epub 2008 Nov 21.


    Aouadi M, Tesz GJ, Nicoloro SM, Wang M, Chouinard M, Soto E, Ostroff GR, Czech MP. Orally delivered siRNA targeting macrophage Map4k4 suppresses systemic inflammation. Nature. 2009 Apr 30;458(7242):1180-4.


    Coate TM, Swanson TL, Copenhaver PF. Reverse signaling by glycosylphosphatidylinositol-linked manduca ephrin requires a SRC family kinase to restrict neuronal migration in vivo. J Neurosci. 2009 Mar 18;29(11):3404-18.


    Wang X, Gocek E, Liu CG, Studzinski GP. MicroRNAs181 regulate the expression of p27Kip1 in human myeloid leukemia cells induced to differentiate by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. Cell Cycle. 2009 Mar 1;8(5):736-41. Epub 2009 Mar 18.
    MicroRNA precursors (pre-miRNA) delivered into HL60 and U937 cells.


    Uzan B, Figeac F, Portha B, Movassat J. Mechanisms of KGF Mediated Signaling in Pancreatic Duct Cell Proliferation and Differentiation. PLoS ONE. 2009;4(3):e4734. Epub 2009 Mar 6.


    Pros E, Fernández-Rodríguez J, Canet B, Benito L, Sánchez A, Benavides A, Ramos FJ, López-Ariztegui MA, Capellá G, Blanco I, Serra E, Lázaro C. Antisense therapeutics for neurofibromatosis type 1 caused by deep intronic mutations. Hum Mutat. 2009 Feb 24;30(3):454-462. [Epub ahead of print]


    O'Hagan KA, Cocchiglia S, Zhdanov AV, Tambawala MM, Cummins EP, Monfared M, Agbor TA, Garvey JF, Papkovsky DB, Taylor CT, Allan BB. PGC-1alpha is coupled to HIF-1alpha-dependent gene expression by increasing mitochondrial oxygen consumption in skeletal muscle cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009 Feb 17;106(7):2188-93. Epub 2009 Jan 28.


    Göoz P, Göoz M, Baldys A, Hoffman S. ADAM-17 regulates endothelial cell morphology, proliferation, and in vitro angiogenesis. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2009 Feb 27;380(1):33-8. Epub 2009 Jan 14.


    Lynch VJ, Tanzer A, Wang Y, Leung FC, Gellersen B, Emera D, Wagner GP. Adaptive changes in the transcription factor HoxA-11 are essential for the evolution of pregnancy in mammals. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008 Sep 30;105(39):14928-33. Epub 2008 Sep 22.


    Davis RL, Homer VM, George PM, Brennan SO. A deep intronic mutation in FGB creates a consensus exonic splicing enhancer motif that results in afibrinogenemia caused by aberrant mRNA splicing, which can be corrected in vitro with antisense oligonucleotide treatment. Hum Mutat. 2008 Oct 13. [Epub ahead of print]


    Sun CS, Wu KT, Lee HH, Uen YH, Tian YF, Tzeng CC, Wang AH, Cheng CJ, Tsai SL. Anti-sense morpholino oligonucleotide assay shows critical involvement for NF-kappaB activation in the production of Wnt-1 protein by HepG2 cells: oncology implications. J Biomed Sci. 2008 Sep;15(5):633-43. Epub 2008 May 7.


    Staszkiewicz J, Gimble J, Manuel JA, Gawronska-Kozak B. IFATS Series: Stem Cell Antigen-1 Positive Ear Mesenchymal Stem Cells (EMSC) Display Enhanced Adipogenic Potential. Stem Cells. 2008 Jul 3. [Epub ahead of print] Morpholinos were delivered into C57BL/6J mouse ear mesenchymal stem cells.


    Chiu SL, Chen CM, Cline HT. Insulin receptor signaling regulates synapse number, dendritic plasticity, and circuit function in vivo. Neuron. 2008 Jun 12;58(5):708-19.
    Morpholinos delivered into HEK293 cells.


    Kahler RA, Yingst SM, Hoeppner LH, Jensen ED, Krawczak D, Oxford JT, Westendorf JJ. Collagen 11a1 is indirectly activated by lymphocyte enhancer-binding factor 1 (Lef1) and negatively regulates osteoblast maturation. Matrix Biol. 2008 May;27(4):330-8. Epub 2008 Jan 16.


    Isenberg JS, Romeo MJ, Maxhimer JB, Smedley J, Frazier WA, Roberts DD. Gene Silencing of CD47 and Antibody Ligation of Thrombospondin-1 Enhance Ischemic Tissue Survival in a Porcine Model: Implications for Human Disease. Annals of Surgery. 2008 May;247(5):860-868.


    Nikopoulos G, Adams T, Adams D, Oxburgh L, Prudovsky I, Verdi J. The use of Endo-Porter to deliver morpholinos in kidney organ culture. Biotechniques. 2008 Apr;44(4):547-9.


    Coate TM, Wirz JA, Copenhaver PF. Reverse Signaling via a Glycosyl-Phosphatidylinositol-Linked Ephrin Prevents Midline Crossing by Migratory Neurons during Embryonic Development in Manduca. J Neurosci. 2008 Apr 9;28(15):3846-60.


    Chiang PC, Hsu JL, Yeh TC, Pan SL, Guh JH. Elucidation of susceptible factors to endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated anticancer activity in human hepatocellular carcinoma. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 2008 Apr;377(2):167-77. Epub 2008 Jan 29.


    Ptaszynska MM, Pendrak ML, Bandle RW, Stracke ML, Roberts DD. Positive Feedback between Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-A and Autotaxin in Ovarian Cancer Cells. Mol Cancer Res. 2008 Mar;6(3):352-63.


    Yarwood SJ, Borland G, Sands WA, Palmer TM. Identification of CCAAT/Enhancer-binding Proteins as Exchange Protein Activated by cAMP-activated Transcription Factors That Mediate the Induction of the SOCS-3 Gene. J Biol Chem. 2008 Mar 14;283(11):6843-53. Epub 2008 Jan 14


    Islam KN, Mendelson CR. Glucocorticoid/GR Inhibition of Surfactant Protein-A (SP-A) Gene Expression in Lung Type II Cells is Mediated by Repressive Changes in Histone Modification at the SP-A Promoter. Mol Endocrinol. 2008 Mar;22(3):585-96. Epub 2007 Dec 13


    Inoue Y, Kurihara R, Tsuchida A, Hasegawa M, Nagashima T, Mori T, Niidome T, Katayama Y, Okitsu O. Efficient delivery of siRNA using dendritic poly(L-lysine) for loss-of-function analysis. J Control Release. 2008 Feb 18;126(1):59-66. Epub 2007 Nov 6.


    Laguinge LM, Samara RN, Wang W, El-Deiry WS, Corner G, Augenlicht L, Mishra L, Jessup JM. DR5 receptor mediates anoikis in human colorectal carcinoma cell lines. Cancer Res. 2008 Feb 1;68(3):909-17.


    Place RF, Li LC, Pookot D, Noonan EJ, Dahiya R. MicroRNA-373 induces expression of genes with complementary promoter sequences. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008 Jan 28; [Epub ahead of print]


    Zhdanov AV, Ward MW, Prehn JH, Papkovsky DB. Dynamics of intracellular oxygen in PC12 cells upon stimulation of neurotransmission. J Biol Chem. 2007 Dec 17; [Epub ahead of print]


    Ridnour LA, Windhausen AN, Isenberg JS, Yeung N, Thomas DD, Vitek MP, Roberts DD, Wink DA. Nitric oxide regulates matrix metalloproteinase-9 activity by guanylyl-cyclase-dependent and -independent pathways. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007 Oct 23;104(43):16898-903. Epub 2007 Oct 17.


    Wang H, Chen C, Song X, Chen J, Zhen Y, Sun K, Hui R. Mef2c is an essential regulatory element required for unique expression of the cardiac-specific CARK gene. J Cell Mol Med. 2007 Nov 16; [Epub ahead of print]


    Ugarte M, Aguado C, Desviat LR, Sanchez-Alcudia R, Rincon A, Perez B. Propionic and Methylmalonic Acidemia: Antisense Therapeutics for Intronic Variations Causing Aberrantly Spliced Messenger RNA. Am J Hum Genet. 2007 Oct 26;81(6) [Epub ahead of print]


    Mandayam S, Huang R, Tarnawski AS, Chiou SK. Roles of survivin isoforms in the chemopreventive actions of NSAIDS on colon cancer cells. Apoptosis. 2007 Jun;12(6):1109-16. Epub 2006 Dec 8.


    Kikuno N, Shiina H, Urakami S, Kawamoto K, Hirata H, Tanaka Y, Place RF, Pookot D, Majid S, Igawa M, Dahiya R. Knockdown of astrocyte-elevated gene-1 inhibits prostate cancer progression through upregulation of FOXO3a activity. Oncogene. 2007 Jun 11; [Epub ahead of print]


    Ammons MC, Siemsen DW, Nelson-Overton LK, Quinn MT, Gauss KA. Binding of Pleomorphic Adenoma Gene-like 2 to the Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF)-{alpha}-responsive Region of the NCF2 Promoter Regulates p67phox Expression and NADPH Oxidase Activity. J Biol Chem. 2007 Jun 15;282(24):17941-52. Epub 2007 Apr 26.


    Challa P, Soto Leon FA, Talbot L, Liton PB, Luna C, Epstein DL, MaddalacR and Gonzalez P. Novel Anti-Sense Oligonucleotide Delivery to Primary Lens Epithelial and Trabecular Meshwork Cell Cultures. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2007;48: E-Abstract 4242.


    Choe KP, Stidham J, Evans DH. Progress towards a method of targeted protein knockdown in Fundulus heteroclitus. The Bulletin, MDI Biological Laboratory V. 45, 2006.


    Lu PH, Chueh SC, Kung FL, Pan SL, Shen YC, Guh JH. Ilimaquinone, a marine sponge metabolite, displays anticancer activity via GADD153-mediated pathway. Eur J Pharmacol. 2007 Feb 5;556(1-3):45-54. Epub 2006 Nov 3.


    Yeh TC, Chiang PC, Li TK, Hsu JL, Lin CJ, Wang SW, Peng CY, Guh JH. Genistein induces apoptosis in human hepatocellular carcinomas via interaction of endoplasmic reticulum stress and mitochondrial insult. Biochem Pharmacol. 2007 Mar 15;73(6):782-92. Epub 2006 Dec 3.


    Bani-Yaghoub M, Kubu CJ, Cowling R, Rochira J, Nikopoulos GN, Bellum S, Verdi JM. A switch in numb isoforms is a critical step in cortical development. Dev Dyn. 2007 Jan 25; [Epub ahead of print]


    Du L, Pollard JM, Gatti RA. Correction of prototypic ATM splicing mutations and aberrant ATM function with antisense morpholino oligonucleotides. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007 Mar 26; [Epub ahead of print]


    Chow G, Knudson CB, Knudson W. Expression and cellular localization of human hyaluronidase-2 in articular chondrocytes and cultured cell lines. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2006 Sep;14(9):849-58.


    Sample R, Bryan L, Long S, Majji S, Hoskins G, Sinning A, Olivier J, Chinchar VG. Inhibition of iridovirus protein synthesis and virus replication by antisense morpholino oligonucleotides targeted to the major capsid protein, the 18 kDa immediate-early protein, and a viral homolog of RNA polymerase II. Virology. 2007 Feb 20;358(2):311-20. Epub 2006 Oct 3.


    Isenberg JS, Romeo MJ, Abu-Asab M, Tsokos M, Oldenborg A, Pappan L, Wink DA, Frazier WA, Roberts DD. Increasing Survival of Ischemic Tissue by Targeting CD47. Circ Res. 2007 Feb 9; [Epub ahead of print]


    Mironov S.ADP regulates movements of mitochondria in neurons. Biophys J. 2007 Feb 2; [Epub ahead of print]


    Hao Q, Hong SH, Maret W.Lipid raft-dependent endocytosis of metallothionein in HepG2 cells. J Cell Physiol. 2007 Feb;210(2):428-35.


    Madhavan M, Haynes TL, Frisch NC, Call MK, Minich CM, Tsonis PA, Del Rio-Tsonis K. The role of Pax-6 in lens regeneration. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 Oct 3;103(40):14848-53. Epub 2006 Sep 26.


    Dunlap KA, Palmarini M, Varela M, Burghardt RC, Hayashi K, Farmer JL, Spencer TE. Endogenous retroviruses regulate periimplantation placental growth and differentiation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 Sep 26;103(39):14390-5. Epub 2006 Sep 15.


    Sands WA, Woolson HD, Milne GR, Rutherford C, Palmer TM. Exchange Protein Activated by Cyclic AMP (Epac)-Mediated Induction of Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling 3 (SOCS-3) in Vascular Endothelial Cells. Mol Cell Biol. 2006 Sep;26(17):6333-46.


    Chih B, Gollan L, Scheiffele P. Alternative splicing controls selective trans-synaptic interactions of the neuroligin-neurexin complex. Neuron. 2006 Jul 20;51(2):171-8.


    Talbot L, Gonzalez P, Liton P, Epstein DL, Challa P. Optimizing Delivery of Novel Anti-Sense Oligonucleotides to Trabecular Meshwork Cells. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci., May 2006; 47: 1874.


    Choudhury A, Marks DL, Proctor KM, Gould GW, Pagano RE. Regulation of caveolar endocytosis by syntaxin 6-dependent delivery of membrane components to the cell surface. Nat Cell Biol. 2006 Apr;8(4):317-28. Epub 2006 Mar 26.


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