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Morpholinos in bacteria

Morpholinos have been used to knock down gene expression in various bacteria. Here is a citation list.

Ghosh C, Popella L, Dhamodharan V, Jung J, Dietzsch J, Barquist L, Höbartner C, Vogel J A comparative analysis of peptide-delivered antisense antibiotics using diverse nucleotide mimics RNA. 2024 May 16;30(6):624-643. doi: 10.1261/rna.079969.124. PMID: 38413166.
Delivery into Salmonella by the KFF peptide

Pals M, Wijnberg L, Yildiz C, Velema WA. Catechol-Siderophore Mimics Convey Nucleic Acid Therapeutics into Bacteria. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl. 2024 Feb 26:e202402405. doi: 10.1002/anie.202402405. Online ahead of print.
Escherichia coli K12 MG1655 and Acinetobacter baumannii (ATCC19606)

Story S, Bhaduri S, Ganguly S, Dakarapu R, Wicks SL, Bhadra J, Kwange S, Arya DP. Understanding Antisense Oligonucleotide Efficiency in Inhibiting Prokaryotic Gene Expression. ACS Infect Dis. 2024 Feb 22. doi: 10.1021/acsinfecdis.3c00645. Online ahead of print.

Nanayakkara AK, Moustafa DA, Pifer R, Goldberg JB, Greenberg DE. Sequence specificity defines the effectiveness of PPMOs targeting Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2023 Aug 23:e0024523. doi: 10.1128/aac.00245-23. Online ahead of print.

Schafer ME, Browne H, Goldberg JB, Greenberg DE. Peptides and Antibiotic Therapy: Advances in Design and Delivery. Acc Chem Res. 2021 Apr 21. doi: 10.1021/acs.accounts.1c00040. Online ahead of print.
Review, includes PPMO in bacteria.

Moustafa DA, Wu AW, Zamora D, Daly SM, Sturge CR, Pybus C, Geller BL, Goldberg JB, Greenberg DE. Peptide-Conjugated Phosphorodiamidate Morpholino Oligomers Retain Activity against Multidrug-Resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa In Vitro and In Vivo. mBio. 2021;12(1):e02411-20. doi:10.1128/mBio.02411-20
Pseudomonas aeruginosa as biofilm or murine pneumonial infection

REVIEW Pifer R, Greenberg DE. Antisense Antibacterial Compounds. Transl Res. 2020 Jun 6:S1931-5244(20)30139-0. doi: 10.1016/j.trsl.2020.06.001. Online ahead of print.

Sandoval-Mojica AF, Altman S, Hunter WB, Pelz-Stelinski KS. Peptide Conjugated Morpholinos for Management of The Huanglongbing Pathosystem. Pest Manag Sci. 2020 May 1. doi: 10.1002/ps.5877. [Epub ahead of print]
Knockdowns in Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus & Wolbachia with peptide-linked Morpholinos

Sturge CR, Felder-Scott CF, Pifer R, Pybus C, Jain R, Geller B, Greenberg D. AcrAB-TolC Inhibition by Peptide-conjugated Phosphorodiamidate Morpholino Oligomers Restores Antibiotic Activity in vitro and in vivo. ACS Infect Dis. 2019 May 23. doi:10.1021/acsinfecdis.9b00123. [Epub ahead of print]
Enterobacteriaceae strains, Klebsiella pneumoniae (septicemia model), Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Hunter WB, Sinisterra-Hunter SH. Chapter Six - Emerging RNA Suppression Technologies to Protect Citrus Trees From Citrus Greening Disease Bacteria. Adv In Insect Physiol. 2018;55:163-197. doi:10.1016/bs.aiip.2018.08.001
Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus

Geller BL, Li L, Martinez F, Sully E, Sturge CR, Daly SM, Pybus C, Greenberg DE. Morpholino oligomers tested in vitro, in biofilm and in vivo against multidrug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2018;[Epub ahead of print] doi:10.1093/jac/dky058

Daly SM, Sturge CR, Marshall-Batty KR, Felder-Scott CF, Jain R, Geller B, Greenberg D. Antisense inhibitors retain activity in pulmonary models of Burkholderia infection. ACS Infect Dis. 2018 Feb 20. doi: 10.1021/acsinfecdis.7b00235. [Epub ahead of print] Burkholderia cepacia, Pseudomonas

Daly SM, Sturge CR, Felder-Scott CF, Geller BL, Greenberg DE. MCR-1 Inhibition with Peptide-Conjugated Phosphorodiamidate Morpholino Oligomers Restores Sensitivity to Polymyxin in Escherichia coli. mBio. 2017;8:e01315-17. doi:10.1128/mBio.01315-17.

Daly SM, Sturge CR, Greenberg DE. Inhibition of Bacterial Growth by Peptide-Conjugated Morpholino Oligomers. Methods Mol Biol. 2017;1565:115-122. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4939-6817-6_10.

Howard JJ, Sturge CR, Moustafa DA, Daly SM, Marshall-Batty KR, Felder CF, Zamora D, Yabe-Gill M, Labandeira-Rey M, Bailey SM, Wong M, Goldberg JB, Geller BL, Greenberg DE. Inhibition of Pseudomonas aeruginosa by Peptide-conjugated Phosphorodiamidate Morpholino Oligomers. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2017 Jan 30. pii: AAC.01938-16. doi: 10.1128/AAC.01938-16. [Epub ahead of print]

Sully EK, Geller BL, Li L, Moody CM, Bailey SM, Moore AL, Wong M, Nordmann P, Daly SM, Sturge CR, Greenberg DE. Peptide-conjugated phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomer (PPMO) restores carbapenem susceptibility to NDM-1-positive pathogens in vitro and in vivo. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2016 Dec 20. pii: dkw476. doi: 10.1093/jac/dkw476. [Epub ahead of print]

Ayhan DH, Tamer YT, Akbar M, Bailey SM, Wong M, Daly SM, Greenberg DE, Toprak E. Sequence-Specific Targeting of Bacterial Resistance Genes Increases Antibiotic Efficacy. PLoS Biol. 2016 Sep 15;14(9):e1002552. doi: 10.1371/journal.pbio.1002552. eCollection 2016 Sep.
Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella enterica, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Burkholderia cenocepacia

Readman JB, Dickson G, Coldham NG. Translational Inhibition of CTX-M Extended Spectrum β-Lactamase in Clinical Strains of Escherichia coli by Synthetic Antisense Oligonucleotides Partially Restores Sensitivity to Cefotaxime. Front Microbiol. 2016 Mar 24;7:373. eCollection 2016.

Geller BL, Greenberg DE. Peptide-conjugated phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomers: a new strategy for tackling antibiotic resistance. Ther Deliv. 2014 Mar;5(3):243-5. doi: 10.4155/tde.13.145. No abstract available.

Sawyer AJ, Wesolowski D, Gandotra N, Stojadinovic A, Izadjoo M, Altman S, Kyriakides TR. A peptide-morpholino oligomer conjugate targeting Staphylococcus aureus gyrA mRNA improves healing in an infected mouse cutaneous wound model. Int J Pharmaceutics. 2013;[Epub ahead of print] doi:10.1016/j.ijpharm.2013.05.041

Wesolowski D, Alonso D, Altman S. Combined effect of a peptide–morpholino oligonucleotide conjugate and a cell-penetrating peptide as an antibiotic. PNAS. 2013; [Epub ahead of print] doi:10.1073/pnas.1306911110

Geller BL, Marshall-Batty K, Schnell FJ, McKnight MM, Iversen PL, Greenberg DE. Gene-Silencing Antisense Oligomers Inhibit Acinetobacter Growth In Vitro and In Vivo. J Infect Dis. 2013;[Epub ahead of print] doi:10.1093/infdis/jit460.

Puckett SE, Reese KA, Mitev GM, Mullen V, Johnson RC, Pomraning KR, Mellbye BL, Tilley LD, Iversen PL, Freitag M, Geller BL. Bacterial Resistance to Antisense Peptide-Phosphorodiamidate Morpholino Oligomers. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2012 Sep 17. [Epub ahead of print].

Panchal RG, Geller BL, Mellbye B, Lane D, Iversen PL, Bavari S. Peptide Conjugated Phosphorodiamidate Morpholino Oligomers Increase Survival of Mice Challenged with Ames Bacillus anthracis. Nucleic Acid Ther. 2012 Oct;22(5):316-22. doi: 10.1089/nat.2012.0362. Epub 2012 Sep 14.

Greenberg DE, Marshall-Batty KR, Brinster LR, Zarember KA, Shaw PA, Mellbye BL, Iversen PL, Holland SM, Geller BL. Antisense Phosphorodiamidate Morpholino Oligomers Targeted to an Essential Gene Inhibit Burkholderia cepacia Complex. J Infect Dis. 2010 May 3. [Epub ahead of print]

Mellbye BL, Weller DD, Hassinger JN, Reeves MD, Lovejoy CE, Iversen PL, Geller BL. Cationic phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomers efficiently prevent growth of Escherichia coli in vitro and in vivo. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2009 Nov 1. [Epub ahead of print]

Mitev GM, Mellbye BL, Iversen PL, Geller BL. Inhibition of Intracellular Growth of Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium in Tissue Culture by Antisense Peptide-Phosphorodiamidate Morpholino Oligomer. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2009 Jul 6. [Epub ahead of print]

Shen N, Ko JH, Xiao G, Wesolowski D, Shan G, Geller B, Izadjoo M, Altman S. Inactivation of expression of several genes in a variety of bacterial species by EGS technology. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009 Apr 30. [Epub ahead of print]

Mellbye BL, Puckett SE, Tilley LD, Iversen PL, Geller BL. Variations in Amino Acid Composition of Antisense Peptide-Phosphorodiamidate Morpholino Oligomer Affect Potency Against Escherichia coli in vitro and in vivo. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2009 Feb;53(2):525-30. Epub 2008 Nov 17.

Tilley LD, Mellbye BL, Puckett SE, Iversen PL, Geller BL. Antisense peptide-phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomer conjugate: dose-response in mice infected with Escherichia coli. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2007 Jan;59(1):66-73. Epub 2006 Oct 31.

Tilley LD, Hine OS, Kellogg JA, Hassinger JN, Weller DD, Iversen PL, Geller BL. Gene-Specific Effects of Antisense Phosphorodiamidate Morpholino Oligomer-Peptide Conjugates on Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium in Pure Culture and in Tissue Culture. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2006 Aug;50(8):2789-96.

Deere J, Iversen P, Geller BL. Antisense Phosphorodiamidate Morpholino Oligomer Length and Target Position Effects on Gene-Specific Inhibition in Escherichia coli. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2005 Jan;49(1):249-55.

Geller BL, Deere J, Tilley L, Iversen PL. Antisense phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomer inhibits viability of Escherichia coli in pure culture and in mouse peritonitis. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2005 Jun;55(6):983-8. Epub 2005 May 4.

Geller BL. Antibacterial antisense. Curr Opin Mol Ther 2005 7(2):109-13.

Geller BL, Deere JD, Stein DA, Kroeker AD, Moulton HM, Iversen PL. Inhibition of Gene Expression in Escherichia coli by Antisense Phosphorodiamidate Morpholino Oligomers. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2003 Oct;47(10):3233-9.