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Morpholinos in insects

Morpholinos in insects

McKenna KZ, Nijhout HF. The development of shape. Modular control of growth in the lepidopteran forewing. J Exp Zool B Mol Dev Evol. 2021 Oct 28. doi:10.1002/jez.b.23101. Online ahead of print.
Junonia coenia (butterfly)

Negri A, Ferrari M, Nodari R, Coppa E, Mastrantonio V, Zanzani S, Porretta D, Bandi C, Urbanelli S, Epis S. Gene silencing through RNAi and antisense Vivo-Morpholino increases the efficacy of pyrethroids on larvae of Anopheles stephensi. Malar J. 2019;18:294. doi:10.1186/s12936-019-2925-5
Bathing larvae in aqueous sol'n of Vivo-Morpholino

Ando T, Fujiwara H, Kojima T. The pivotal role of aristaless in development and evolution of diverse antennal morphologies in moths and butterflies. BMC Evol Biol. 2018 Jan 25;18(1):8. doi: 10.1186/s12862-018-1124-2.
Bombyx mori (silk moth) electroporation

Glennon EKK, Torrevillas BK, Morrissey SF, Ejercito JM, Luckhart S. Abscisic acid induces a transient shift in signaling that enhances NF-κB-mediated parasite killing in the midgut of Anopheles stephensi without reducing lifespan or fecundity. Parasit Vectors. 2017 Jul 13;10(1):333. doi: 10.1186/s13071-017-2276-4.
Vivo-Morpholinos fed to mosquitos, delivery to the midgut

Ramaker JM, Swanson TL, Copenhaver PF. Manduca Contactin Regulates Amyloid Precursor Protein-Dependent Neuronal Migration. J Neurosci. 2016 Aug 17;36(33):8757-75. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0729-16.2016.
Manduca sexta (hawkmoth)

Lam S, Chen H, Chen CK, Min N, Chu JJH. Antiviral Phosphorodiamidate Morpholino Oligomers are Protective against Chikungunya Virus Infection on Cell-based and Murine Models. Sci Rep. 2015;5:12727 doi:10.1038/srep12727.
cell culture: mosquito cells

Cator LJ, Pietri JE, Murdock CC, Ohm JR, Lewis EE, Read AF, Luckhart S, Thomas MB. Immune response and insulin signalling alter mosquito feeding behaviour to enhance malaria transmission potential. Sci Rep. 2015;5:11947 doi:10.1038/srep11947
Vivo-Morpholinos fed to mosquitos for gut knockdown

Rosenberg MI, Brent AE, Payre F, Desplan C. Dual mode of embryonic development is highlighted by expression and function of Nasonia pair-rule genes. eLife. 2014;3:e01440 doi:10.7554/eLife.01440.

Pietri JE, Cheung KW, Luckhart S. Knockdown of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling in the midgut of Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes using antisense morpholinos. Insect Mol Biol. 2014 May 28. doi: 10.1111/imb.12103. [Epub ahead of print].

McMahon A, Reeves GT, Supatto W, Stathopoulos A. Mesoderm migration in Drosophila is a multi-step process requiring FGF signaling and integrin activity. Development. 2010 Jul;137(13):2167-75.

Coate TM, Swanson TL, Copenhaver PF. Reverse signaling by glycosylphosphatidylinositol-linked manduca ephrin requires a SRC family kinase to restrict neuronal migration in vivo. J Neurosci. 2009 Mar 18;29(11):3404-18.
Manduca sexta (hawkmoth)

Coate TM, Wirz JA, Copenhaver PF. Reverse Signaling via a Glycosyl-Phosphatidylinositol-Linked Ephrin Prevents Midline Crossing by Migratory Neurons during Embryonic Development in Manduca. J Neurosci. 2008 Apr 9;28(15):3846-60.
Manduca sexta (hawkmoth)

Pilot F, Philippe JM, Lemmers C, Lecuit T. Spatial control of actin organization at adherens junctions by a synaptotagmin-like protein Btsz. Nature. 2006 Aug 3;442(7102):580-4. Epub 2006 Jul 9.

Bucher G, Klingler M. Divergent segmentation mechanism in the short germ insect Tribolium revealed by giant expression and function. Development. 2004 Apr;131(8):1729-40. Epub 2004 Mar 17.
Tribolium castaneum (flour beetle)