bioRxiv. 2019;[preprint] doi:10.1101/822270
Protein glycosylation plays essential roles in protein structure, stability and activity such as cell adhesion. The cadherin superfamily of adhesion molecules carry O-linked mannose glycans at conserved sites and it was recently demonstrated that the TMTC1-4 genes contribute to the addition of these O-linked mannoses. Here, biochemical, cell biological and organismal analysis was used to determine that TMTC3 supports the O-mannosylation of E-cadherin, cellular adhesion and embryonic gastrulation. Using genetically engineered cells lacking all four TMTC genes, overexpression of TMTC3 rescued O-linked glycosylation of E-cadherin and cell adherence. The knockdown of the Tmtc genes in Xenopus laevis embryos caused a delay in gastrulation that was rescued by the addition of human TMTC3. Mutations in TMTC3 have been linked to neuronal cell migration diseases including Cobblestone lissencephaly. Analysis of TMTC3 mutations associated with Cobblestone lissencephaly found that three of the variants exhibit reduced stability and missence mutations were unable to complement TMTC3 rescue of gastrulation in Xenopus embryo development. Our study demonstrates that TMTC3 regulates O-linked glycosylation and cadherin-mediated adherence, providing insight into its effect on cellular adherence and migration, as well the basis of TMTC3-associated Cobblestone lissencephaly.
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