Dev Biol. 2003 Sep 1;261(1):55-81.
The Spdeadringer (Spdri) gene encodes an ARID-class transcription factor not previously known in sea urchin embryos. We show that Spdri is a key player in two separate developmental gene regulatory networks (GRNs). Spdri is expressed in a biphasic manner, first, after 12 h and until ingression in the skeletogenic descendants of the large micromeres; second, after about 20 h in the oral ectoderm, where its transcripts remain present at 30-50 mRNA molecules/cell far into development. In both territories, the periods of Spdri expression follow prior territorial specification events. The functional significance of each phase of expression was assessed by determining the effect of an alphaSpdri morpholino antisense oligonucleotide (MASO) on expression of 17 different mesodermal genes, 8 different oral ectoderm genes, and 18 other genes expressed specifically during endomesoderm specification. These effects were measured by quantitative PCR, supplemented by whole-mount in situ hybridization and morphological observations. Spdri is shown to act in the micromere descendants in the pathways that result in the expression of batteries of terminal skeletogenic genes. But, in the oral ectoderm, the same gene participates in the central GRN controlling oral ectoderm identity. Spdri is linked in the oral ectoderm GRN with several other genes encoding transcriptional regulators that are expressed specifically in various regions of the oral ectoderm. If its expression is blocked by treatment with alphaSpdri MASO, oral-specific features disappear and expression of the aboral ectoderm marker spec1 encompasses the whole of the ectoderm. In addition to disappearance of the oral ectoderm, morphological consequences of alphaSpdri MASO treatment include failure of spiculogenesis and of correct primary mesenchyme cell (pmc) patterning in the postgastrular embryo, and also failure of gastrulation. To further analyze these phenotypes, chimeric embryos were constructed consisting of two labeled micromeres combined with micromereless 4th cleavage host embryos; either the micromeres or the hosts contained alphaSpdri MASO. These experiments showed that, while Spdri expression is required autonomously for expression of skeletogenic genes prior to ingression, complete skeletogenesis also requires the expression of oral ectoderm patterning information...
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