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Systematic detection of Mendelian and non-Mendelian variants associated with retinitis pigmentosa by genome-wide association study

Nishiguchi KM, Miya F, Mori Y, Fujita K, Akiyama M, Kamatani T, Koyanagi Y, Kota S, Takigawa T, Ueno S, Tsugita M, Kunikata H, Cisarova K, Nishino J, Murakami A, Abe T, Momozawa Y, Terasaki H, Wada Y, Sonoda K-H, Rivolta C, Ishibashi T, Tsunoda T, Tsujikawa M, Ikeda Y, Nakazawa T
bioRxiv. 2019;[preprint] doi:10.1101/859744
To uncover genetic basis of autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa (ARRP), we applied 2-step genome-wide association study (GWAS) in 640 Japanese patients prescreened with targeted re-sequencing. Meta-GWAS identified three independent peaks at P < 5.0×10-8, all within the major ARRP gene EYS. Two were each tagged by a low frequency variant (allele frequency < 0.05); a known founder Mendelian mutation (c.4957dupA, p.S1653Kfs*2) and a presumably hypomorphic non-synonymous variant (c.2528G>A, p.G843E). c.2528G>A newly solved 7.0% of Japanese ARRP cases, improving genetic diagnosis by 26.8% and simultaneously serving as a new attractive target for genome editing gene therapy. The third peak was tagged by an intronic common variant, representing a novel disease-susceptibility signal. GWAS successfully unraveled genetic causes of a rare “monogenic” disorder for the first time, which provided unexpected insights into significant contribution of non-Mendelian genetic factors and identified a novel high frequency variant directly linked to development of local genome therapeutics.
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