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Toxic effects of exogenous retinoic acid on the neurodevelopment of zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos

Wang X, Ma T, Wei C, Liu J, Yu T, Zou Y, Liu S, Yang Z, Xi J
Neurotoxicol Teratol. 2023 Sep 7:107291. doi: 10.1016/ Online ahead of print
Endogenous retinoic acid (RA) is essential for embryonic development and maintaining adult physiological processes. Human-caused RA residues in the environment threaten the survival of organisms in the environment. We employed zebrafish as a model to explore the developmental impacts of excess RA. We used exogenous RA to raise the amount of RA signal in the embryos and looked at the effects of excess RA on embryonic morphological development. Upregulation of the RA signal significantly reduced embryo hatching and increased embryo malformation. To further understand the neurotoxic impact of RA signaling on early neurodevelopment, we measured the expression of neurodevelopmental marker genes and cell death and proliferation markers in zebrafish embryos. Exogenous RA disrupted stem cell (SC) and neuron marker gene expression and exacerbated apoptosis in the embryos. Furthermore, we looked into the links between the transcriptional coactivator RBM14 and RA signaling to better understand the mechanism of RA neurotoxicity. There was a negative interaction between RA signaling and the transcription coactivator RBM14, and the morpholino-induced RBM14 down-regulation can partially block the effects of RAR antagonist BMS493-induced RA signaling inhibition on embryonic malformation and cell apoptosis. In conclusion, exogenous RA causes neurodevelopmental toxicity, and RBM14 may be involved in this neurotoxic process.
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