You are here

Jon's Blog

Post date
Morpholinos, mutants, and phenocopying

I was concerned when Stefan Schulte-Merker and Didier Stainier' paper appeared in mid-2014, first in Development and then on The Node. Later in 2014 Nathan Lawson's paper in Developmental Cell was published. Prior to these papers I was intrigued and excited by CRISPR technology but felt that, while it might temporarily displace some use of Morpholinos, in the long run it would benefit Morpholino use by making the zebrafish model stronger.

Wednesday, February 11, 2015 - 15:18
Change in Morpholino activity over time

Here are some notes discussing how Morpholino oligos can change activity over time, along with strategies for recovering and maintaining activity.

Change over time in Morpholino activity

Monday, January 5, 2015 - 10:59
Xenopus laevis: brain ventricle injection then electroporation

Faulkner RL, Wishard TJ, Thompson CK, Liu H-H, Cline HT. FMRP regulates neurogenesis in vivo in Xenopus laevis tadpoles. eNeuro. 2014;[Epub ahead of print] doi:10.1523/ENEURO.0055-14.2014

Friday, January 2, 2015 - 12:15
How much Morpholino to inject into a zebrafish egg or early zygote?

An injection volume of 500 pL is reasonable (Rosen et al. 2009, The basic rule for dosing of Morpholino injections is to use the least dose that gives you the phenotype of interest. As the dose increases, so does the potential for off-target RNA interactions and, with that, the potential of seeing a phenotype that has nothing to do with your target RNA.

Wednesday, December 31, 2014 - 08:21
Intestinal delivery to zebrafish from fish water

Progatzky F, Sangha NJ, Yoshida N, McBrien M, Cheung J, Shia A, Scott J, Marchesi JR, Lamb JR, Bugeon L, Dallman MJ. Dietary cholesterol directly induces acute inflammasome-dependent intestinal inflammation. Nat Commun. 2014 Dec 23;5:5864. doi: 10.1038/ncomms6864.

This paper claims delivery of Morpholino to the intestinal epithelium of zebrafish by putting Morpholinos in the fish water around feeding time.

Friday, December 26, 2014 - 13:17
Rescues with wild-type or mutant mRNA

Here is an interesting strategy for nailing down the relationship between a phenotype and a particular mutation. Using a zebrafish pnpla6 morphant, co-injection of wild-type human pnpla6 mRNA rescued the morphant phenotype while mutant human pnpla6 mRNA failed to rescue.

Wednesday, December 10, 2014 - 13:54
Of Mice and Morpholinos, 2014

These are some papers using Morpholinos in mouse, published in 2014.


WT1 controls antagonistic FGF and BMP-pSMAD pathways in early renal progenitors . Motamedi FJ, Badro DA, Clarkson M, Rita Lecca M, Bradford ST, Buske FA, Saar K, Hübner N, Brändli AW, Schedl A. Nat Commun. 2014 Jul 17;5:4444. doi: 10.1038/ncomms5444.
Vivo-Morpholino in kidney organ culture.

Tuesday, October 28, 2014 - 11:12
Some Morpholino Citations for Hematology: 2014

Representative Recent Morpholino Citations for Hematology: 2014
Last edit: 4 Dec 2014

Characterization of an apparently synonymous F5 mutation causing aberrant splicing and factor V deficiency.
Nuzzo F, Bulato C, Nielsen BI, Lee K, Wielders SJ, Simioni P, Key NS, Castoldi E. Haemophilia. 2014 Dec 3. doi: 10.1111/hae.12554. [Epub ahead of print].

Tuesday, October 21, 2014 - 13:34
Citations for Morpholino work with Ebola or Marburg filovirus

Following are citations of Ebola or Marburg filovirus drug development using Morpholino antisense oligos.


Enterlein S, Warfield KL, Swenson DL, Stein DA, Smith JL, Gamble CS, Kroeker AD, Iversen PL, Bavari S, Muhlberger E. VP35 Knockdown Inhibits Ebola Virus Amplification and Protects against Lethal Infection in Mice. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2006 Mar;50(3):984-93.

Friday, September 5, 2014 - 11:12
APC Is an RNA-Binding Protein, and Its Interactome Provides a Link to Neural Development and Microtubule Assembly

Preitner N, Quan J, Nowakowski DW, Hancock ML, Shi J, Tcherkezian J, Young-Pearse TL, Flanagan JG. APC Is an RNA-Binding Protein, and Its Interactome Provides a Link to Neural Development and Microtubule Assembly. Cell. 2014 Jul 17;158(2):368-82. doi: 10.1016/j.cell.2014.05.042.

This paper reports rat brain in utero injection then electroporation of Morpohlinos as well as mouse experiments with peptide nucleic acids.

Tuesday, July 22, 2014 - 09:50